Containerization was a great development in ocean freight transportation during the 21 century. It reflects the difference between loading and offloading vessels by individual cargo package on a pallet or by hand and the efficient movement of containers. The storage of cargo on a facility has become more efficient also. These innovations were the result of industry doing their job better in a competitive environment, not done because the government was involved. In the 2015 FAST Act, Congress responded to constituent's concern over productivity of these facilities by requiring the collection of metrics.
NAWE supports metrics where they assist a public purpose but oppose the collection of metrics where the purpose is to oversee business productivity. The parties of the supply chain are capable of, negotiate to, and innovate for greater productivity within commercial arrangements. Commercial practices are the best motivator for Productivity.